Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS) - Summary and bibliography

Background of HBS

The Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS) was originally a convenience cohort of male executives and businessmen (born 1919-1934, n=3490), who participated in voluntary health check-ups at the Institute of Occupational Health in Helsinki during the 1960s. Since the beginning of the 1970s HBS has developed into a clinical-epidemiological longitudinal study. Primary focus has been on the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

Since the year 2000 the emphasis has shifted to geriatrics, and with its extraordinary long follow-up of up to 50 years HBS can now be seen as a “life-course” study. Traditional CVD risk factors are available from as far as the 1960s. The original cohort has been followed up from national registers since 1985, and with regular questionnaire surveys since 2000. In 1974 participants (available n=3309) were divided into five groups according to their clinical status and CVD risk. Two high-risk groups (n=1222) and a low-risk group (n=593) participated in a 5-year multifactorial prevention study in 1974-1980. Additionally, random subcohorts have been studied clinically with laboratory and genetic examinations in 2003 (n=650) and in 2011 (n=520).

The latest questionnaire survey was performed in 2015, by which time 2293 (65.7%) participants had died, and 73.8% (n=622) of surviving eligible participants responded. The data can be accessed via the HBS investigators (email: timo.strandberg@helsinki.fi).

ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02526082

 

Bibliography 1979- 2015

Congress abstracts not included

 

1.      Huttunen JK, Pispa J, Kumlin T, et al. Lack of correlation between serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity and blood pressure in middle-aged men. Hypertension 1979;1:47-52

2.      Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Ehnholm C, Kumlin T, Mattila S, Naukkarinen V. Effect of long-term antihypertensive and hypolipidemic treatment on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. Atherosclerosis. 1980;36(2):249-59

3.      Mattila S. Correlation between ECG abnormalities observed in health examinations and coronary heart disease in middle-aged men. Thesis, University of Helsinki, 1980

4.      Naukkarinen V. The feasibility of administering preventive treatment for coronary heart disease  to middle-aged men. Thesis, University of Helsinki, 1981

5.      Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Kuusi T, Kumlin T, Mattila S, Naukkarinen V, Strandberg T. Effect of probucol on the activity of postheparin plasma lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase. Clin Chim Acta. 1981;113:59-64

6.      Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Strandberg T, Naukkarinen V, Mattila S, Kumlin T. Lowered HDL cholesterol and incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Lancet. 1981;2(8244):478

7.      Miettinen TA, Vanhanen H, Huttunen JK, Naukkarinen V, Mattila S, Strandberg T, Kumlin T. HDL cholesterol and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents in a 5 year multifactorial primary prevention trial. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;13(Suppl 2):431S-434S

8.      Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Kuusi T, Kumlin T, Mattila S, Naukkarinen V, Strandberg T. Clinical experience with probucol with special emphasis on mode of action and long-term treatment. Artery. 1982;10:35-43

9.      Miettinen TA, Naukkarinen V, Huttunen JK, Mattila S, Kumlin T. Fatty-acid composition of serum lipids predicts myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1982;285(6347):993-6

10.  Miettinen TA, Alfthan G, Huttunen JK, Pikkarainen J, Naukkarinen V, Mattila S, Kumlin T. Serum selenium concentration related to myocardial infarction and fatty acid content of serum lipids. Br Med J 1983;287(6391):517-9

11.  Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Naukkarinen V, et al. Multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men. JAMA 1985;254:2097-2102.

12.  Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Naukkarinen V. Cholestanol and fatty acids of serum lipids as risk  factors of stroke. Monogr Atheroscler. 1986;14:19-25

13.  Miettinen TA, Huttunen JK, Naukkarinen V, Strandberg T, Vanhanen H. Long-term use of  probucol in the multifactorial primary prevention of vascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 1986;57:49H-54H

14.  Vanhanen H. Effects of long-term multifactorial treatment of coronary heart disease on serum lipids, especially on HDL-cholesterol. Thesis, University of Helsinki, 1986

15.  Salomaa V. Long-term effect of primary prevention measures of coronary heart disease on the risk factor levels in middle-aged men. Thesis, University of Helsinki,1988

16.  Naukkarinen VA, Strandberg TE, Vanhanen HT, Salomaa VV, Sarna SJ, Miettinen TA. Mortality rates after multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Ann Med. 1989;21(6):441-6

17.  Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Naukkarinen VA, Vanhanen HT, Sarna SJ, Miettinen TA. Long-term mortality after 5-year multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged men. JAMA 1991;266:1225-1229

18.  Salomaa VV, Strandberg TE, Vanhanen H, Naukkarinen V, Sarna S, Miettinen TA. Glucose tolerance and blood pressure: long term follow up in middle aged men. BMJ. 1991;302:493-6

19.  Miettinen TAStrandberg TE. Implications of recent results of long term multifactorial primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Ann Med. 1992;24:85-9.

20.  Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Vanhanen HT, Naukkarinen VA, Sarna SJ, Miettinen TA. Mortality in participants and non-participants of a multifactorial prevention study of cardiovascular diseases: a 28 year follow up of the Helsinki Businessmen Study. Br Heart J. 1995;74:449-54

21.  Strandberg TE. Inverse relation between height and cardiovascular mortality in men during 30-year follow-up. Am J Cardiol. 1997;80:349-50

22.  Strandberg TE, Salomaa V. White coat effect, blood pressure and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. Eur Heart J. 2000;21:1714-8

23.  Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Vanhanen HT, Pitkälä K, Miettinen TA. Isolated diastolic hypertension, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure as predictors of mortality during a follow-up of up to 32 years. J Hypertens. 2002;20:399-404

24.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg A, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Miettinen TA. Impact of midlife weight change on mortality and quality of life in old age. Prospective cohort study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:950-4

25.  Strandberg AY, Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Miettinen TA. Alcohol consumption, 29-y total mortality, and quality of life in men in old age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1366-71

26.  Strandberg A, Strandberg TE, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Häppölä O, Miettinen TA. A follow-up study found that cardiovascular risk in middle age predicted mortality and quality of life in old age. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004;57:415-21

 

27.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg A, Rantanen K, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Miettinen TA. Low cholesterol, mortality, and quality of life in old age during a 39-year follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;44:1002-8

28.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg AY, Pitkälä KH, Salomaa VV, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Cardiovascular risk in midlife and psychological well-being among older men. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:2266-71

29.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg A, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. The association between weight gain up to midlife, 30-year mortality, and quality of life in older men. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2260-1

30.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg AY, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä K, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Alcoholic beverage preference, 29-year mortality, and quality of life in men in old age. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62:213-8

31.  Rantanen K, Ylikoski R, Häppölä O, Strandberg TE. Higher cardiovascular risk in midlife is associated with worse cognitive function 29 years later, in old age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56:2152-3

32.  Strandberg AY, Strandberg TE, Pitkälä K, Salomaa VV, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. The effect of smoking in midlife on health-related quality of life in old age: a 26-year prospective study. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1968-74

33.  Sirola J, Strandberg AY, Pitkälä KH, et al. Weight change after middle age and disability in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:189-90

34.  Savela SL, Koistinen P, Tilvis RS, et al. Physical activity at midlife and health-related quality of life in older men. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170:1171-2

35.  Strandberg TE, Gylling H, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA. Serum plant and other noncholesterol sterols, cholesterol metabolism and 22-year mortality among middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis. 2010;210:282-7

36.  Savela S, Koistinen P, Tilvis RS, et al. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors and mortality during a 34-year follow-up in men. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25:619-25

37.  Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies. Lancet. 2010;375:2215-22

38.  Hyttinen L, Strandberg TE, Strandberg AY, et al. Effect of cholesterol on mortality and quality of life up to a 46-year follow-up. Am J Cardiol. 2011;108:677-81

39.  Strandberg TE, Pienimäki T, Strandberg AY, et al. One-hour glucose, mortality, and risk of diabetes: a 44-year prospective study in men. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171:941-3

40.  Sirola J, Pitkala KH, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA, Strandberg TE. Definition of frailty in older men according to questionnaire data (RAND-36/SF-36): The Helsinki Businessmen Study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2011;15:783-7

41.  Strandberg TE, Saijonmaa O, Fyhrquist F, et al. Telomere length in old age and cholesterol across the life course. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011;59:1979-81

42.  Strandberg TE, Saijonmaa O, Tilvis RS, et al. Association of telomere length in older men with mortality and midlife body mass index and smoking. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66:815-20

43.  Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. Lancet. 2011;377:1085-95

44.  Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration.   Diabetes mellitus, fasting glucose, and risk of cause-specific death. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:829-4

45.  Strandberg TE, Strandberg AY, Saijonmaa O, Tilvis RS, Pitkälä KH, Fyhrquist F. Association between alcohol consumption in healthy midlife and telomere length in older men. The Helsinki Businessmen Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012;27:815-22.

46.  Strandberg TE, Pienimäki T, Strandberg AY, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS. Association between use of statin medication and weight change in older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60:1588-90.

47.  Pienimäki T, Strandberg AY, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA, Salomaa V, Strandberg TE. Modifiable risk factors in midlife and the age of onset of diabetes mellitus: a 34-year follow-up study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(1):174-6

48.  Huohvanainen EAStrandberg TEPitkälä KHKarppinen HTilvis RS. Do you wish to live to the age of 100? A survey of older men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(10):1983-4.

49.  Strandberg TE, Sirola J, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS, Strandberg AY, Stenholm S. Association of midlife obesity and cardiovascular risk with old age frailty: a 26-year follow-up of initially healthy men. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36:1153-7

50.  Strandberg AY, Pienimäki T, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS, Salomaa VV, Strandberg TE. Comparison of normal fasting and one-hour glucose levels as predictors of future diabetes during a 34-year follow-up. Ann Med. 2013;45:336-40

51.  Savela SL, Koistinen P, Stenholm S, et al. Leisure-time physical activity in midlife is related to old age frailty. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68:1433-8

52.  Strandberg TE, Stenholm S, Strandberg AY, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS. The "obesity paradox," frailty, disability, and mortality in older men: a prospective, longitudinal cohort study. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:1452-60

53.  Strandberg AY, Strandberg TE, Stenholm S, Salomaa VV, Pitkälä KH, Tilvis RS. Low midlife blood pressure, survival, comorbidity, and health-related quality of life in old age: the Helsinki Businessmen Study. J Hypertens. 2014;32:1797-804

54.  Rantanen KK,  Strandberg AY, Pitkälä K, Tilvis R, Salomaa V, Strandberg TE . Cholesterol in midlife increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease during an up to 43-year follow-up. Eur Geriatr Med 2014;5:390-393

55.  Rantanen KK, Strandberg TE, Stenholm SS, Strandberg AY, Pitkälä KH, Salomaa VV, Tilvis RS. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of active and healthy aging (AHA) in octogenarian men. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2015;27:581-7